Comprehensive training programs for individual sports are “periodized” in order to provide a progressive and interactive training program. That is, they are broken up into three or four phases in the year with each phase concentrating on a particular fitness development.
For professional sports that utilize weights in their training, which is most sports these days, each phase has different objectives and each successive phase builds on the previous one.
For many traveling professionals, golf is a little different. You can pretty much play all year round if you move among continents. Even so, this is how a weight training program could look if your golf playing season is followed by a closed or off season -- snow and ice being a huge limitation!
How Periodized Programs Work
Early pre-seasonPlayers are preparing for the season and starting to build up after the break. Emphasis is on building functional strength and some muscle bulk (hypertrophy).
Late pre-seasonPlayers are working up to the start of the season. Emphasis is on building maximum power.
In seasonCompetition or regular recreational golf is underway and you expect to be in peak condition. Maintenance of strength and power is emphasized.
Closed seasonTime to relax for a while but you need to keep active if you want to get a flying start for next year. Emphasis is on rest and recovery with maintenance of light activity -- cross training, light gym work. A break from serious strength training is often helpful. As pre-season approaches, more regular gym work can resume.
Important note: Physically, golf requires a mix of aerobic fitness and strength. You don't want to fade in the last few holes in a round because you feel tired, which impacts on mental as well as physical performance. This program is for strength training, but you should prepare well for the long days on the fairway with additional aerobic conditioning. Practice rounds may be enough for some, but additional cardio on the road or in the gym may work to your advantage.
Basic Approach of this Golf Weight Training ProgramGolfers like Gary Player, Greg Norman and Tiger Woods have made strength training respectable, if not essential, in maximizing achievement in golf. There is no reason why it can't work for amateur and recreational golfers as well.
I've designed a two-phase program for golfers. The first phase concentrates on building basic strength and muscle and the second on power delivery. This should suit most golfers. If you play all-year round you can just continue with the power program once you build your basics. If you take a break for longer than a month, start again with the strength program.
Consider the program presented here an all-round program, best suited to beginners or casual weight trainers without a history of weight training. The best programs are always specific to an individual's current fitness, goals, and access to resources and coaches.
If you're new to weight training, brush up on principles and practices with the beginner resources.
Always warm up and cool down before and after a training session. A medical clearance for exercise is always a good idea at the start of the season. Now, let's get started:
Phase 1 - Pre-Season
Strength and Muscle Phase
In this phase you will build strength and muscle. The emphasis is on lifting moderately heavy weights in order to train the nervous system in conjunction with the muscle fibers to move bigger loads. Hypertrophy, which is building muscle size, does not necessarily imply strength, although in this foundation phase some muscle building will serve you well for strength development.
Strength will be the foundation for the next phase, which is power development. Power is the ability to move the heaviest loads in the shortest time. Power is essentially a product of strength and speed. For golf, it could mean a better tee shot, more control on those tricky approaches or length on the big par five holes.
Time of year: Mid pre-season
Duration: 6-8 weeks
Days per week: 2-3, with at least one day between sessions
Rest in between sets: 1-2 minutes
Phase 1 Exercises
- Barbell squat, dumbbell squat or sled hack squat
- Dumbbell incline bench press
- Romanian deadlift
- Dumbbell biceps arm curl
- Dumbbell bent-over row
- Dumbbell triceps extension or machine pushdown
- Cable wood chop
- Lat pulldown to the front with wide grip
- Reverse crunch
Points to Note
- Adjust the weight so that the final few repetitions are taxing but don't cause you to "fail" completely.
- Although the upper body -- the swing -- is where the action is expressed in golf, the "posterior chain" of the hips, gluteals (butt) and upper legs and the abdominals is of equal importance in the execution of the swing. The squats and deadlifts build strength and power in this region.
- Don't work to failure for the upper body exercises such as the dumbbell press, woodchops and lat pulldown, and do hold good form. Keep the forearms in a vertical plane with the upper arms not extending excessively below parallel at the bottom of the movement. It's important to protect the vulnerable shoulder joint when training for sports where the shoulder gets a lot of specific "out of gym" work -- in this case on the course.
- If you are unable to recover from a session with only one rest day in between, re-schedule this program to two sessions each week rather than three. Strength training can be physically and mentally demanding -- but so can golf.
- You may be sore after these sessions. Muscle soreness or delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is normal; joint pain is not. Be sure to monitor your arm and shoulder reactions to this phase. Back off when any joint pain or discomfort is felt.